OK, I tried to do this correctly but for now I give up! Sigh. I just found out that while the Unicode 'trick' explained below to form the glyphs needed for the 'sh' sound in Turkmen works just fine on the screen with an appropriate browser and font, it's giving my printer the fits, causing it to just print spaces for half the characters after encountering just one such Unicode combo. So on all pages except this one, I'm simply using the Turkish characters ş and Ş instead of the official c̩̍ and S̩̍: at least that way the pages (except this one) can be printed and taken along when travelling...
For rendering of the official Turkmen spelling you need to have a Unicode characters set available, and a browser that supports this. While most letters in the official Turkmen spelling are available in the Turkish Latin character set (ISO-8859-9) which is used as the standard character set for these documents, three are not. Of these, only Ր ('zh' lower case) is available in Unicode as a single character, while c̩̍ and S̩̍ ('sh' lowercase and upper case respectively) need to be 'imitated' even in Unicode with combining diacritical marks.
Their choice of alphabet is curious, given the fact that all sounds in Turkmen can be rendered adequately with the standard (8-bit) Turkish alphabet which does not even require Unicode (unless it needs to be combined in one document with other languages). It would seem the law makers in Turkmenistan did not consider electronic data processing when deciding on the final version of the official spelling in 1995. The Uzbeks have been rather more intelligent about their spelling since it does not even need the Turkish alphabet but can be rendered with any Latin character set. When a Latin spelling is chosen to enhance trade with Western nations, such considerations matter a great deal!
To correctly render both Turkish and Turkmen, you need to have a Unicode-capable browser, and Unicode fonts installed. These pages default to Arial Unicode MS or Lucida Sans Unicode; If your browser or platform doesn't support Unicode, you can still have at least Turkish rendered correctly by installing a Turkish (sans-serif) font, and configuring your browser to use that font for the Turkish language. Uzbek will render correctly with any Latin script.
Several Unicode fonts can be downloaded from the Microsoft Typography website. They are standard TrueType fonts, and will work on any platform that supports TrueType. Microsoft Windows NT® 4, Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows XP, Microsoft Office 97 and later, and Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 and later all support Unicode. See also General Information About the Arial Unicode MS Font.
|© 2002 Marjolein Katsma|